How do electrical automobiles work? EV parts and their features

Electrical automobiles depend on far fewer shifting elements than their ICE-powered counterparts.

By :
HT Auto Desk

16 Might 2022, 12:41 pm

Electrical automobiles use fewer shifting elements than a fossil gas car. (Reuters)

Electrical automobiles are witnessing a second of awakening with the demand for these zero-emission fashions growing throughout the globe. Electrical automobiles not solely promise zero tailpipe emissions, however they’ve a considerably decrease value of possession than conventional ICE-powered fashions. Whereas shoppers discover electrical automobiles extra economical, given their decrease value of possession than petrol or diesel automobiles, they’re additionally simpler to take care of.

(Additionally Learn: Shopping for Electrical Automobile? Know Tax Advantages Can Be Availed)

It’s because electrical automobiles include fewer parts than fossil gas autos. The foremost parts of an electrical automobile are – a battery pack, energy management unit, electrical motor, transmission and battery charger.

battery pack

The battery pack is like the guts of any electrical automobile. A battery pack determines an electrical automobile’s cruising vary and energy. Furthermore, a battery pack may be stated to be each a magic and a curse in a single shell as a result of aside from defining the vary of the automobile, additionally they come at a reasonably excessive value in addition to bear an enormous weight. A battery pack is often laid out as a big flat panel below the stomach of an electrical automobile. It consists of small modules which additionally embody small cells. The battery shops the power which gives the juice to run the car. It additionally gives power to different parts of the car corresponding to lighting, and dashboard components.


Other than the battery pack, the electrical motor is one other crucial element to any EV. An electrical motor attracts power from the battery pack and it runs on AC energy. The Energy Management Unit converts the DC energy of the battery pack into AC for the motor. Motors ship energy to the axles which helps them to rotate the wheels. Extra variety of motors means extra energy to the car and extra velocity for it. An EV can use as much as 4 motors, every of which may ship energy to 1 wheel.


Electrical motors do not truly require a transmission. As a substitute of the multi-speed gearbox obtainable in fossil gas autos, electrical autos include a direct transmission system. As a substitute of a conventional transmission setup, electrical automobiles use a drive mode selector, which is less complicated than a conventional gearbox with numerous shifting elements.

energy management unit

The facility management unit is the important thing meeting that converts the DC energy saved within the battery again into the AC that almost all electrical motors use. This course of is completed utilizing a element referred to as an inverter, a model of which is used to energy laptops or different gadgets utilizing a 12-volt port in a automobile’s sprint. An influence management unit connects the drivetrain to the accelerator, begin button, and drive mode controller. It additionally oversees regeneration by means of which an EV channel powers the battery pack again throughout braking.

battery charger

The battery shops power within the type of DC however the electrical grid runs the electrical energy within the type of AC. A battery charger is required to attract energy from the grid to the car’s battery. Other than charging the battery pack, the charger additionally converts AC energy to DC. There’s a variety of charging choices related to electrical automobiles. These embody customary house chargers, quick chargers, and so forth.

First printed date: 16 Might 2022, 11:43 AM IST

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